If you've been studying medicinal mushrooms much in recent years, you've likely heard about Chaga (Inonotus obliquus). Chaga is peculiar among medicinal mushrooms in that the part that is gathered for medicine isn't technically a mushroom (i.e., not a spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus) but rather a sclerotial mass. For years, I hadn't thought much about this distinction, that is until I came upon the above tree late last month.
I immediately recognized the char-like growths on this dead-standing Birch (Betula sp.) tree, but was puzzled by the unfamiliar sight beneath the bark. Could this be a Chaga fruiting body? A little research turned up an article by Maine mushroom forager and author Greg Marley called Chaga; The Elusive Fruiting Body of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) which confirmed my hunch. In the article (which includes photographs), Marley describes discovering a tree with a similar fruiting body during a November 2014 foray with the Maine Mycological Association.
I should mention that, photographs aside, I didn't gather medicine from this tree. It's my understanding that Chaga sclerotium is best gathered for medicine while the host tree is still alive. I've included photos below in hopes that they'll serve as search images for you, in case you've yet to meet this fungus in the flesh. Don't expect to find chunks of Chaga lined up on a log or sitting on a shelf of Birch Polypore, as shown in the last photos; I arranged those scenes for your enjoyment.
For more search images and info on Inonotus obliquus, see David Spahr's article. For a discussion on Chaga conservation, see the two videos by Arthur Haines. (To view the following images in full-size, click here.)
A great many mushroom species have gills or tubes from which spores are released; a relative few have spines, or so-called teeth, instead. One widespread toothed mushroom who grows on the ground is Hydnum repandum, the Hedgehog Mushroom. Author David Spahr speaks highly of this edible, typically bug-free mushroom, in particular noting the Hedgehog Mushrooms's pleasing aroma. Referring to his experience dehydrating them, he writes, "I do not think any mushroom makes my house smell better".* To learn more about Hydnum repandum, read Spahr's online article and visit Michael Kuo's authoritative site. (To view the following images in full-size, click here.)
*David Spahr, Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms of New England and Eastern Canada (2009), p. 54. A free web-based version of the book can be found here.
The look of these fresh White Pine Boletes (Suillus americanus) calls to mind scrabbled eggs with a dash of paprika, and the slimy surfaces of this yellow mushroom may explain another common name, Chicken Fat Mushroom. White Pine Boletes grow in association with Eastern White Pine and are reportedly edible (I've not tried them).
As with any wild food, be sure to positively identify any mushrooms you plan to eat and consult several sources to obtain information on edibility and proper preparation before sampling. For more details on this species, see the profiles at MushroomExpert.com. (To view the following images in full-size, click here.)
As yesterday was the New Moon, today I invite you to begin a Moon-long Challenge. Perhaps you'll commit to keeping a gratitude journal, taking 5 minutes each day and night to check in with the sky, or eating at least one Common Dandelion leaf (or a wild food of your choice) each day. I've begun a Mushroom Moon, where each day I'll seek out a wild mushroom to appreciate and (at least attempt) to identify. I invite you to share your challenge in the comments for today's post.
Photo caption: Birch Polypore (Piptoporus betulinus) growing on Gray Birch.
Roaming through a patch of woods last week in Wells, I noticed this large mushroom growing at the base of an Eastern White Pine. This is Phaeolus schweinitzii a fungi commonly called Dyer's Polypore or Velvet-topped Fungus. You can read about (and see examples of) this mushroom's use as a dye source at Tom Volk's site. (To view the following images in full-size, click here.)