I occasionally receive emails from people eager to know the identify of a particular fruit-bearing plant. Some have wondered if they've found Black Huckleberry. Others have guessed Choke Cherry. But all too often photos reveal their mystery plant to be Glossy False Buckthorn (Frangula alnus), a poisonous plant (or at least one with strong medicinal properties) as far as humans are concerned.
While there are many ways to tell these three species apart, one simple way is to examine the seeds. Each Choke Cherry contains one hard, central pit; each Black Huckleberry has ten small, crunchy seeds; Glossy False Buckthorn berries have __________. [I could tell you the answer, but it's more fun to go and find out for yourself. Report back with your findings.]
To learn more about this shrub, visit Go Botany. To view the following images in full-size, click here.
Red Elderberry (Sambucus racemosa) is distinctive in the white season, with pairs of plump, green or purple flower buds and bark with prominently raised lenticels. Other field marks include heart or shield-shaped leaf scars with usually 5-7 bundle scars and persisting, finely branched fruit stalks with an overall dome shape.
The plant's red fruits, which are said to be edible for humans if prepared properly (I've not tried them, but see the comments section of Foraging Wild Flowers: Black Elderberry), are certainly eaten by various birds and mammals. In any case, the fruits do not persist into the white season. Red Elderberry is a clumping shrub or small tree capable of spreading by rhizome. To learn more about this native woody plant, visit GoBotany. To view the following images in full-size, click here.
In July and August, wild Blueberries (genus Vaccinium) receive a lot of attention from New Englanders. Long before I'd foraged any other wild food, I used to join my family on a walk to some swampy woods to gather Highbush Blueberries at least once each summer. It's no wonder why: blueberries are delicious, often prolific, and in many instances can be picked for free! And no matter where you live in New England, there's more than one type that can be found.
Closely related to Blueberries (also in the Ericaceae family) are the three species of Huckleberries (genus Gaylussacia), who tend to get less attention from the average wild fruit forager, but I'd argue are no less deserving of appreciation. I've written about Black, Blue, and Dwarf Huckleberry before, and I thought today would be a perfect time to post a reminder about these lesser-known, crunchy-seeded, summertime fruits.
grows in forests and fields in every state in New England
grows in similar (though sometimes wetter) habitats in CT, RI, MA, and NH
grows in bogs and fens in all but VT, though is listed as rare in NH, CT, and RI
With egg-shaped, evergreen leaves and distinctly hairy, woody stems, Trailing-arbutus (Epigaea repens), a member of the Heath (Ericaceae) family, is a short subshrub who is recognizeable year-round. In early spring, flower buds that have been present for months at the tips of twigs begin to swell and open, revealing fragrant, white or pink flowers (you may need to bring your nose close to a cluster of flowers to notice their sweet scent).
Trailing-arbutus is the provincial flower of Nova Scotia and the state flower of Massachusetts. Another common name is Mayflower, which apparently refers not to the month of the year, but rather to the famous ship associated with Plymouth Colony pilgrims.
While this plant's flowers are a familiar and welcome sight to me, I've yet to see the fruit of this creeping plant. Last summer, Mary Holland shared a photo of some developing fruit on her Naturally Curious blog. With the help of her search image, I figure it's just a matter of time before I discover some fruit for myself.
My current moon challenge has been to find, photograph, and sketch the twigs of at least 15 shrubs. While I was already familiar with the 17 species I ended up choosing, there were a few I couldn't confidently identify in their winter form at the start of the challenge. Studying them closely in order to sketch their white season features has resulted in stronger field identification skills. I think next winter I'll repeat the challenge with 15 different shrub species.
Here's a list and below is a gallery of photos of the shrubs I got to know better this moon, 14 of whom I've featured on this blog:
American Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana)
Beaked Hazelnut (Corylus cornuta)
Black Elderberry (Sambucus nigra)
Gray Dogwood (Swida racemosa)
Leatherleaf (Chamaedaphne calyculata)
Maleberry (Lyonia ligustrina)
Nannyberry (Viburnum lentago)
Purple Chokeberry (Aronia floribunda)
Rhodora (Rhododendron canadense)
Sheep American-laurel (Kalmia angustifolia)
Silky Dogwood (Swida amomum)
Small Bayberry (Morella caroliniensis)
Smooth Arrowwood (Viburnum dentatum)
Speckled Alder (Alnus incana)
Sweet-fern (Comptonia peregrina)
Sweetgale (Myrica gale)
Withe-rod (Viburnum nudum)
If you embark on a shrub challenge of your own, whether during the white or green season, I recommend consulting The Shrub Identification Book (1963) by George W. Symonds and the Peterson Field Guide to Trees and Shrubs (1973) by George Petrides. These and other helpful titles can be accessed through many public libraries. For updated scientific names, I recommend Go Botany. (To view the following images in full-size, click here.)