Category Archives: Wild Edibles

Foraging Wild Shoots: Garden Yellow-rocket

Earlier this week, I profiled the edible shoots of Garlic-mustard, and today I'll share a similar vegetable of a plant called Garden Yellow-rocket (Barbarea vulgaris).  The tender tops of this biennial look similar to cultivated broccoli rabé, which is a member of the same plant family, and are best gathered before the plants flower.

Photo of Garden Yellow-rocket tops

Originally from Europe, Garden Yellow-rocket can now be found throughout New England (in fact, throughout most of the country), and tends to grow in disturbed soils, fields, and flood-prone lands. First-year plants overwinter as leafy basal rosettes, which then flower in late April or May of their second year. Here's a typical lower leaf, showing several small leaflets and a larger terminal leaflet.

Photo of Garden Yellow-rocket leaf

Depending on where you live, this vegetable may already be out-of-season. Luckily, Garden Yellow-rocket's bright-yellow, four-petaled flowers make this plant easy to see for weeks longer and can aid in positive field identification.

Photo of Garden Yellow-rocket flowers

Whether this year or next, I hope you get to meet and eat this abundant wild edible.

Foraging Wild Shoots: Garlic-mustard

Among my favorite wild vegetables of spring are the tender, fast-growing shoots of Garlic-mustard (Alliaria petiolata).

Photo of Garlic-mustard

Garlic-mustard commonly grows in large groups, in partial to heavy shade, and often in an area with recent soil disturbance. Once established, this non-native biennial vigorously reseeds and can quickly displace native plants.  Seedlings can carpet the ground near second-year plants, as the following photo shows.

Photo of Garlic-mustard Seedlings

When crushed, Garlic-mustard leaves give off a strong garlicky aroma. Samuel Thayer, in his excellent book Nature's Garden, introduced me to my favorite part of this plant: the mild-tasting shoots. In mid-to-late April, plants who have overwintered send up shoots in preparation for flowering.  The tender top portions of these shoots can be harvested at the lowest place that they snap cleanly and can be enjoyed raw, or, as I prefer them, cooked.  The shoot in the following photo has had a few lower leaves removed and is of typical size.

Photo of Garlic-mustard Shoot

If you don't already know this plant, I recommend seeking out colonies when they are blooming this spring, which is now in southern New England and soon farther north.  Clusters of four-petaled white flowers help this 1-3' plant stand out.

Photo of Garlic-mustard Flowers

Up close, notice the fine hairs on the leaf stalks and the coarsely toothed, triangular upper leaves. Look for Garlic-mustard along roadsides, in other disturbed areas, and, increasingly, in forests with rich soils.  While this plant often grows in polluted areas that are inappropriate for foraging, you can nonetheless get familiar with this wild mustard (Garlic-mustard is a member of the Brassicaceae family) in preparation for when you do find some plants growing somewhere safe.  With this fieldwork and additional research, next spring you'll know where to look to find plants to sample before they flower.

Subshrub ID: Eastern Spicy-wintergreen

Photo of Eastern Spicy Wintergreen

Eastern Spicy-wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens) is an evergreen subshrub of the forest floor. The plant's leathery leaves grow clustered on short upright stems. The red, pea-sized fruit dangles from the center in bunches or singly, as is the case above. The fruit is edible, if a bit mealy, with a minty flavor. The leaves, when chopped up and steeped as a tea, or simply nibbled, release a similarly pleasant flavor. Other common names for Gaultheria procumbens include Checkerberry, Teaberry, and Spiceberry. This subshrub can be distinguished from Partridge-berry in that the latter features smaller, oppositely-arranged leaves and fruit with a distinct pair of "eyes".

Subshrub ID: Partridge-berry

Photo of Partridge-berry Flowers

A common evergreen groundcover in the pine and oak forests near my home is a plant called Partridge-berry (Mitchella repens). This subshrub is recognized by mats of paired, white-veined leaves and sparse red fruits that ripen in summer but can persist into the following year. Each fruit has two small eye-like depressions -- lasting evidence of the paired flowers that preceded fruiting. Though essentially tasteless, these small fleshy drupes are edible. I often sample one or two when I encounter a healthy population.

Photo of Partridge-berry Fruit

Note: Top photo taken in July, bottom photo in December. Find more Partridge-berry photos and info at the New England Wildflower Society's Go Botany site.

Vegetables from the Sea

My first taste of seaweed -- which are large, edible marine algae -- came many years ago when I tried vegetable sushi wrapped in Nori. The salty flavor was initially strange but gradually grew on me. It wasn't until years later that I began to explore other sea vegetable options, like toasted Dulse on salads and hearty Kombu and Kelp in broths and soups. Now, seaweed is a valued part of my diet, as it was and still is for indigenous peoples all over the world.

Photo of Kelp
Washed up Atlantic Kelp (Saccharina longicruris) posing on the sand

Throughout their lifetime of immersion in mineral-rich ocean water, seaweeds also accumulate rich stores of micro-nutrients. While these algae are highly valued for the feeding of garden soil (as compost and garden fertilizer), the direct food value of seaweeds appears to have largely faded from the consciousness of modern Americans. Aside from processed Nori wraps, how many people are aware of seaweed's vast culinary uses?

Seaweeds are adapted to living in conditions of constant movement. Influenced by the endless ebb and flow of ocean waters, they must remain flexible yet firmly attached to their anchor points. Humans, too, can thrive in these shifting times by remaining rooted in the present moment, and I suggest that seaweeds are therefore not just sources of nutrition but living beings with life lessons to share. Buy taking in seaweeds, we incorporate their wise spirits into our lives.

Photo of Atlantic Kombu
Atlantic Kombu (Laminaria digitata) has many "fingers"

If you are interested in adding some wild algae to your diet, I recommend finding a local source of hand-harvested, air-dried sea vegetables. Ironbound Island Seaweed (a small company based in Winter Harbor, Maine) sells several kinds of seaweed, which they describe in detail on their site.  They offer seaweed by the pound, as well as 2.5 pound Ocean Harvest Bushel for those who want to experiment with all their east-coast offerings.

Of course, you can also harvest seaweed yourself.  But be aware, that while gathering piles of rotting seaweed from a coastal beach may work for garden mulch, edible seaweeds need to be gathered while they are still alive. If you are up for the challenge and don't mind getting wet, I recommend contacting an experienced seaweed harvester to inquire about apprenticing.